Language-spoken disorders are among the most common childhood disorders. They are associated with communication problems and violations of sound-articulation features.
The most common language-speaking disorders:
1) Dissalia is a violation of sound reproduction in normal hearing and stored inertia of the articulation apparatus. It is one of the most common speech violations. According to statistics, it occurs in 25-30% of pre-school children (5-7 years); 17-20% for school-aged children (1-3 grade) and less than 1% for older students. It can be displayed in return, missed or distorted by a sound or a group of sounds. The reasons for the appearance of dysplasia are usually of a mechanical or functional nature. Mechanical dysplasia (organic) is a disorder of the maxillofacial apparatus - teeth, tongue, jaw and palate. A functional dyscalcia is when no such organic disorder is observed. It occurs in childhood in the process of assimilation of the pronunciation of sounds, can be imitation, of embarrassment.
The reasons for functional disability are biological and social, general physical weakness of the child, retention in mental development, attention deficit, imitation or inappropriate speech patterns. You may not have learned some of the differential signs of a certain sound. Phonemes do not differ in their sound, which leads to the exchange of one sound with another. Also, the child may have all the articulation positions formed, but there is no ability to distinguish them. For example: n-b; boron-boron, as a result, the phonemes mix the same word accepts a different sound.
Mechanical and functional dislodges in turn can be:
-monomorphic and polymorphic.
-monomorphic dysplasia is when sounds of one group are violated.
-polymorphic dysplasia is when several sounds are disturbed.
2) Language Disorders - Alalia / Dysphasia of Development Allaiya is a term that notes the lack of speech or speech limitation. NAS is classified according to the symptom manifestation in 3 levels:
1st level of the AWC - the active vocabulary is in its early stages consisting of a few words and simple words or vocal crap. The passive vocabulary is more extensive than the active one and is distinguished by some specific concepts. Only voices and some of the consensus from the earlier stages of ontogenetic development.
2nd level of the AWP - The active vocabulary is more extended than 1 level, but mostly there are verbs and nouns. Some adverbs and pronouns can be observed, but they are at an unconscious level. The adjective is displayed, but only in the subject's quality category. The more vocabulary is richer, the understanding of more complex instructions appears. Words are of poor quality, ie, shedding or shifting syllables. The articulation is severely disturbed by the sounds of late ontogenesis (P, L). Speech is almost incomprehensible.
3rd level of the AWP - The active vocabulary is relatively well developed, but some words are used with inaccurate meaning. Signs and verbs predominate in speech, lesser parts of speech are used. Still there are mistakes in the use of prepositions. The prepositions "in" and "of" the alliances "and" are best used. In the speech is observed the atgrammatism, the atgrammatism mostly in the part with the time, dominates mostly present time. The slogan is correct. The articulation is already built, but it is characterized by instability.
3. Disturbance in Speech Rhythm and Rhythm (stuttering) Stuttering is one of the most serious and complex violations. Often, correction work is a long and difficult process. Characterized by disturbances in the natural rate and fluidity of speech with repetitions of sounds and syllables.
• extension of sounds;
• blockages - cramps of articulating muscles;
• repetitions of unicorn words
• repetitions of words, phrases Stranding occurs most often between the second, third and sixth years. When stuttering occurs, consultation with a speech therapist is mandatory. It is very important that the therapy be started as early as possible.
According to ICD-10, "Dyslexia is a significant disorder in the development of reading skills, which can not be explained solely by the child's well-being, visual acuity problems, or inadequate teaching at school".
Symptoms of dyslexia:
• reading by analogy - the first two sentences are true, and then they think;
• shifting letters into words;
• inserting words and letters from the upper row - this tells us of a disturbance of attention;
• confusing reading - most often we can find that the child is lying to him by reading the beginning of a fairy tale and then he continues to read, and he makes up his mind;
• difficult or impossible synthesis of sounds in syllables when reading - spelling is destroyed at the time of hacking, they can not unite them;
• difficult to understand what they read;
• the most common symptom - do not recognize individual letters and confuse them around; There are two more disorder distortions - the real logopedic symptoms that characterize this writing process are:
• word shift in the word;
• dropping of letters;
• adding letters;
• replacing one of the letters with similar ones;
Accalculia: Inability or specific difficulty in calculating and performing mathematical operations.
5. Rhinolia Rhinolia is a term indicative of typical nasal / nasal / spoken language in children with congenital clefts of the lips and / or palate. The main pathological mechanisms for speech disorders in congenital lip and / or palate cracks (VCTN) are:
• cerebrovascular failure;
• abnormal tongue position;
• breathing disorders;
• dysfunction of the eustachian tube;
• hyperfunction of voice connections;
6. Dysarthria Dizziness is a violation of sound reproduction and speech speech due to insufficient inertia of the speech device, associated with organic damage to the CNS and the PNS. Symptoms of dysarthria:
1) Musculoskeletal disorders: - They depend on localization and have several options.
• steadily increased muscle tone, tongue, lips, face and neck. The tongue is always tense, tight as a ball, pulled back, its back is curved upward to the palate - palatalization. Active movements are very difficult, spasms are often observed - concomitant movements in adjacent muscles;
• constantly decreased muscle tone - mouth can not close, increased salivation. As a consequence, the nasalization of the sounds - a nasal hue, as the muscles of the soft palate are relaxed;
• dystonia - constantly changing muscle tone. In a relaxed state, there is a decreased muscle tone, and when it comes to speech, it rises sharply and the muscles become spastic.
2) Porxus disturbances - not just speech muscles but also general motorism.
3) 3) Breathing Breath Disorders - Disturbed Coordination of Breathing During Talking. The rhythm of breathing does not match the content of the speech. It is incomplete due to sound difficulty, breathing is rapid, this makes the child very often stop and the speech becomes cracked.
4) Violation of voice. The voice is disturbed due to palsy in the muscles of the throat and the vowel connections. Voice connections are sometimes difficult to drive, and cramps often occur. The voice is weak, quiet, lost.
The reasons for the occurrence of the dysarthria are many different. They can affect intrauterine development during pregnancy (viral infections, intoxications, placental pathology, etc.) at the moment of birth (difficult to give birth, cesarean birth, buttocks, cerebral hemorrhage in the newborn) and early childhood (infectious diseases of the brain, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, cranial-brain injuries).
Dysarthria may occur in combination with epilepsy, and depending on the severity and duration of the disease, it can also be reflected in the development of the linguistic system in the child. There is a neurological nature and symptoms that include paraesthetic, tonic, coordination or sensory disorders.
7. Hearing and speech disorders Hearing is the ability of the body to perceive and differentiate sound fluctuations through the hearing analyzer. 1 in 1,000 children is born with hearing problems. Timely diagnosis and hearing loss are of particular importance for the development of a child with an auditory disorder. Depending on which part of the hearing system the anatomical changes or functional disturbances are detected, two types of deafness - conductive (sound conductive) and neurosensory (sound type) are defined.
• the conductive is related to the state of the external and the middle ear - it is expressed in reduced ability to perceive the volume. Usually, the difficulties are temporary. The condition may improve after medical or surgical treatment. The reasons that can lead to a conductive are:
- blocked ear canal;
- broken stump structure;
- fluid occlusion in the middle ear;
- in a damaged Eustachian tube;
- in case of underdevelopment or lack of any part of the ear;
- disturbed middle ear connection to the center;
- hearing bones due to a heavy blow;
• neurosensory-steady state that is not amenable to treatment.
Reasons that can lead to neurosensory are:
- damage to the cochlea under the influence of very loud sound;
- premature birth;
- heritable causes;
- physical trauma to the head;
- age changes;
In many faces, the combination of conductive and neurosensory deafness can be observed. Depending on when and in what cases hearing damage occurs, two types of deafness:
• congenital - before birth;
• acquired after birth;